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中国40~60岁人群营养健康知识和行为调查
作者:王少康1  刘楠2  刘运杰3  胡津慧4  金一4  尤茄潞4  孙建琴5  何梅6 
单位:1. 东南大学公共卫生学院 营养与食品卫生学系, 江苏 南京 210009;
2. 中营华堂教育科技(北京)有限公司, 北京 100050;
3. 四川大学 华西公共卫生学院, 四川 成都 610044;
4. 达能开放科研中心, 上海 200233;
5. 复旦大学附属华东医院 临床营养中心, 上海 200040;<
关键词:中老年人群 营养 健康 行为 问卷调查 
分类号:R153.3
出版年·卷·期(页码):2023·42·第六期(801-813)
摘要:

目的:了解不同地区40~60岁人群健康现状、膳食摄入与饮食行为以及营养健康认知与行为状况。方法:采用横断面观察性研究方法,于2022年7月至8月,利用问卷星网站制作电子问卷,通过微信及网络发放电子问卷,对所选主要的15个城市40~60岁居民进行调查,了解其基本情况、健康现状、膳食情况及营养知识水平。结果:本次调查共收回7 015份有效问卷。调查对象的平均年龄为(49.8±5.7)岁;性别分布为男性3 446名(占比49%)、女性3 569名(占比51%);平均BMI为22.74 kg·m-2,其中男性调查对象中有30.50%为超重、5.39%为肥胖,女性调查对象中有18.02%为超重、4.85%为肥胖。健康自评得分均值为76.15分,有62.11%的调查对象认为自身健康状况一般(61~80分),只有5.44%的调查对象健康自评得分超过90分。营养认知平均得分为(20.35±6.03)分,有超过60%的受访者缺乏充足的营养认知;慢性病认知平均得分为(8.71±2.19)分,超过25%的人缺乏慢性病认知。进一步采用多因素Logistic回归分析显示,营养/慢性病认知得分与性别、学历、职业、收入、是否与老人共同居住存在显著的关系,且具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:40~60岁人群中超重、肥胖率较高,对自身健康状况满意度较低,健康状况及营养、慢病认知水平较低。建议借助数字化工具开展多种形式的健康宣教和营养干预,形成良好饮食行为并纠正饮食偏见,改善中老年人的健康状况。

Objective: To understand the health status, dietary intake and dietary behavior, nutritional health cognition and behavior of people aged 40-60 in different regions in China. Methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional observational research method. From July to August 2022, electronic questionnaires were maded by the wenjuanxing website, electronic questionnaires through WeChat and the internet were distributed, and surveys on residents aged 40-60 in 15 major selected cities were conducted to understand their basic conditions, health status, diet conditions and nutrition knowledge. Results: A total of 7 015 valid questionnaires were returned in this survey. The average age of the respondents was(49.8±5.7) years old; the gender distribution was 3 446 males(49%) and 3 569 females(51%); with an average BMI of 22.74 kg·m-2, and 30.50% of the male respondents were overweight, 5.39% were obese, 18.02% of female respondents were overweight, and 4.85% were obese. The average health self-assessment score was 76.15 points, 62.11% of the survey respondents considerd themselves to be in average health condition(61-80 points), and only 5.44% of the survey respondents had a health self-score of more than 90 points. The average score of nutritional awareness was(20.35±6.03) points, and more than 60% of the respondents lacked adequate nutritional awareness; the average score of chronic disease awareness was(8.71±2.19) points, and more than 25% of the respondents lacked awareness of chronic diseases. Further multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between nutrition/chronic disease cognition score and gender, education, occupation, income, and living with the elderly or not, and it was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion: People aged 40-60 have a higher rate of overweight and obesity, lower satisfaction with their own health status, and lower levels of health status, nutrition, and chronic disease awareness. It is recommended to carry out various forms of health education and nutritional intervention with the help of digital tools to form good dietary behaviors, correct dietary prejudices, and improve the health status of middle-to-old-aged people.

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