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2015—2020年江阴地区儿童急性呼吸道感染常见病毒的流行病学分析
作者:张玲  万俊  李虎 
单位:东南大学附属江阴人民医院 儿科, 江苏 江阴 214400
关键词:呼吸道感染 儿童 病毒 流行病学 
分类号:R725.1
出版年·卷·期(页码):2022·41·第二期(203-207)
摘要:

目的:分析江阴地区儿童急性呼吸道感染7种常见呼吸道病毒的流行病学特征,为该地区儿童急性呼吸道感染合理诊治提供依据。方法:选取2015年1月至2020年12月在江阴市人民医院儿科住院治疗的12 294例急性呼吸道感染患儿,采集患儿鼻咽分泌物,应用免疫荧光法检测7种常见呼吸道病毒,即副流感病毒(PIV)1、2、3型,流感病毒(IFV)A、B型,腺病毒(ADV)及呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)。结果:呼吸道病毒检测阳性率为22.2%,其中RSV检出率最高,为13.4%。不同年龄段患儿感染病毒(PIV-2除外)的阳性率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。秋、冬季节呼吸道病毒感染率明显高于春、夏季节(P<0.05)。秋、冬季节RSV感染率最高(分别为12.1%、33.7%),春、夏季节PIV-3感染率最高(分别为4.7%、4.6%)。PIV-1检出率与月平均湿度呈正相关,PIV-2检出率与月平均风速呈负相关,PIV-3、ADV检出率与月平均温度呈正相关,IFV-A、IFV-B、RSV检出率与月平均温度呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论:RSV是江阴地区儿童呼吸道病毒感染的主要病原体,1岁以下儿童RSV感染阳性率最高,秋、冬季节为呼吸道病毒感染的高发季节,患儿年龄、季节、气温是呼吸道病毒感染的重要区别指标。

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of seven common respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infections in Jiangyin area, and provide a basis for the rational diagnosis and treatment of children with acute respiratory infections in this area. Methods: Twelve thousand two hundred and ninety-four children with acute respiratory infections hospitalized and treated in our department from January 2015 to December 2020 were enrolled as our research subjects. The nasopharyngeal secretions of the children were collected and seven common respiratory viruses, namely parainfluenza virus(PIV) type 1, 2 and type 3, influenza virus(IFV) type A and B, adenovirus(ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus(RSV), were detected by immunofluorescence method. Results: The positive rate of respiratory virus was 22.2%, of which the detection rate of RSV was the highest(13.4%, 1 650/12 294). There were statistically significant differences in the positive rate of virus infections(except PIV-2) among children of different age groups(P<0.05). The respiratory virus infection rate in autumn and winter was significantly higher than that in spring and summer(P<0.05). RSV infection rate was the highest in autumn and winter(12.1%, 33.7%), and PIV-3 infection rate was the highest in spring and summer(4.7%, 4.6%). The detection rate of PIV-1 was positively correlated with monthly average humidity; the detection rate of PIV-2 was negatively correlated with monthly average wind speed; the detection rates of PIV-3 and ADV were positively correlated with monthly average temperature; the detection rates of IFV-A, IFV-B and RSV were negatively correlated with monthly average temperature(P<0.05). Conclusion: RSV is the main pathogen of respiratory virus infection in children in Jiangyin area. The positive rate of children under 1 year old is the highest. The highest incidence of infection is in autumn and winter. Age, season and temperature are the important influencing factors for respiratory virus infections in children.

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