Objective: To explore the clinical significance of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) detection in assessment of testis spermatogenic function in patients with azoospermia. Methods: 310 azoospermic patients received microscope assisted testicular sperm extraction in the Urology Center of Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University from May 2016 to May 2018, including 80 cases with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and 230 cases with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). 38 NOA cases succeeded in microsurgical sperm retrieval (NOA-RS group), while the rest 192 cases failed (NOA-RF group). The NOA cases were also subdivided according their testis volume, NOA-Ⅰ group (≥10 ml, 155 cases), NOA-Ⅱ group (<10 ml, 75 cases). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The testis volumes of OA group were significantly larger than those in NOA-Ⅰ and Ⅱ groups (P<0.01), and the AMH level was not related to testis volume. The AMH levels in OA group were higher than those in NOA-Ⅰ and Ⅱ groups, while the AMH levels decreased together with the testis volumes in NOA groups. The AMH level was positively related with INHB level(P<0.01), but not associated with FSH, LH and T levels in OA group. The AMH level correlated with INHB level in NOA-Ⅰ group(P<0.05), while significantly correlated with FSH and T levels(P<0.01), but not correlated with the LH level. The INHB and T levels dropped alongside with the AMH lelvel decrease, while FSH level increased instead. In NOA-Ⅱ group, AMH level significantly correlated with FSH and LH levels (P<0.01).The FSH and LH levels increased significantly in contrast to AMH level decrease, but not correlated with the INHB and T levels. The AMH level in NOA-RS group was significantly lower then that in the NOA-RF group(P<0.05).The age distribution was similar between NOA-RS group and NOA-RF group. Conclusion: Concurrent analysis of serum AMH and INHB levels may not only be useful in differentiation of OA and NOA patients, but also can help in assessment of testis spermatogenic function. However, the serum AMH level alone is not related to the sperm retrieval results in NOA patients.
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